Preserve Access to Colorado’s Great Outdoors: Strengthen the Recreational Use Statute


Outdoor recreation is foundational to our state’s identity. Whether it be hiking, skiing, fishing, rock climbing, hunting, equestrianism, or mountain biking, recreation transcends political parties and unites us as Coloradans. We are incredibly lucky to have access to world-class public lands for recreation; however, the majority of land in Colorado is privately owned and public access is reliant on strong landowner liability protections. Protections that should be strengthened with updates to the Colorado Recreational Use Statute.

Colorado’s Recreational Use Statute has long helped landowners open their gates to the public by reducing liability for accidents on private land. However, after a well-publicized $7.3 million dollar judgment was entered against the Colorado Springs Air Force Academy after a mountain biker was severely injured while riding on a washed-out trail, landowners have been nervous about their own liability. In March, this liability concern led to the closure of Lincoln and Democrat, two prominent fourteeners that are privately owned. These closures are representative of a larger climate of uncertainty around the strength of Colorado’s recreational use statute.

Mt. Lincoln, located near Alma, Colorado, is now closed as the landowner is unable to find affordable liability insurance.

The James Nelson and Elizabeth Varney v. United States of America case found that the Air Force Academy’s failure to repair the washed-out trail represented a “willful or malicious failure to guard or warn against a known dangerous condition, use, structure, or activity likely to cause harm.” A new coalition has formed seeking to narrow this provision by replacing “willful or malicious” with “willful and wanton.” This may sound like a small change, but it has big consequences for public access to private land. The court found liability because the Air Force Academy was notified of the washed-out trail two weeks before the accident but failed to put up a sign or repair the trail in a timely manner; this was considered “willful.” Adding a “wanton” standard requires the action to be deliberate with the intent to cause harm.

I serve on the Advocacy Committee of the Boulder Climbing Community, an environmental stewardship nonprofit that represents the thousands of rock climbers in the Front Range. We work closely with land managers to repair trails, replace outdated hardware, and protect watersheds and ecosystems from Rocky Mountain National Park to Shelf Road. As a rock climber, I am particularly interested in protecting landowners from liability to “inherent dangers” because a significant amount of climbing is on private land. This includes popular crags such as the Animal World area and Plotinus Wall in Boulder Canyon, the Industrial Wall on Eldorado Mountain, and many crags in the Western end of Clear Creek Canyon. That’s over 250 routes in some of the most popular climbing areas in Colorado.

Many recreational users don’t think about how the trail system they are using is built or maintained. A lot of the time, it isn’t public land managers or private landowners, but rather hardworking volunteers who love the sport and give their time and money to build and maintain trails. This was the case at the Air Force Academy, which was aware of the trail but didn’t build or maintain it themselves. At the Boulder Climbing Community, we work with landowners – public and private alike – to preserve access to rock climbing resources. We restore the trails, and we replace the bolts. Our work, and the climbing access it supports, hinge on positive relationships with landowners. We want landowners to be as fully protected from liability as possible in order to encourage the sharing of private land with the public.

The Fix CRUS Coalition is not looking to change the law for landowners who decide to charge for access – let them be responsible for maintenance. But, if a landowner is generous enough to allow access to their land for free, they should only face liability where their actions are “wilful and wanton.”  Otherwise, let the public maintain the resource through individual stewardship and through organizations like the Boulder Climbing Community, and let users take responsibility for whether to use those lands.

Examples of the Boulder Climbing Community's trail maintenance and restoration efforts.

It isn’t just climbers that have their own nonprofit stewardship groups. Mountain bikers have the International Association of Mountain Bikers and local organizations, hikers have the Colorado Mountain Club, and many other outdoor users have similar stewardship-oriented organizations. There is a vast network of nonprofits and volunteers who love the outdoors and are dedicated to protecting access to outdoor recreation and stewarding the land. We can take care of the commons, and we can all be responsible for our own activity around “inherent dangers and risks.” A stronger recreational use statute would improve liability protections in support of opening the outdoor spaces Coloradans cherish to public recreation and stewardship, and it deserves our support. Sign our petition to stay engaged and have your voice heard.

Picture of Anneliese Steel, Boulder Climbing Community

Anneliese Steel, Boulder Climbing Community

Anneliese Steel is on the Advocacy Committee of the Boulder Climbing Community, a stewardship non-profit whose mission is to mobilize the local community and partners to care for the environments we impact as climbers and enrich the outdoor experience for all. She is a Fix CRUS Coalition member working on our executive committee.

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